The recent edition (no. 15) of hacker magazine POC||GTFO features a nice article on cracking JKS Java keystores. JKS is the default keystore in all current versions of Java and still the only kind available in several widely-used application frameworks, despite issues with its security.
The keystore works by password-based encryption (PBE): you supply a password and the private keys are encrypted under a key derived from that password. There are just two problems: the encryption is not real encryption and the key derivation is extremely weak. The PBE works by applying the hash function SHA-1 to the password (and a salt) to generate a keystream, and XORing the resulting stream against the key.