Following my post on the security of the algorithms in the W3C Crypto API (our most viewed blog post by far), I thought I’d repeat the exercise for other cryptographic APIs. Here at Cryptosense we do a lot of work with PKCS#11, widely used in applications that use devices like HSMs and smartcards to provide cryptography. How do the algorithms in PKCS#11 measure up?
One problem with PKCS#11 is it hasn’t been updated since 2004 (though this is about to change, we’ll look at the proposed changes in a future post). The state of the art in cryptanalysis, however, has certainly advanced, to the extent that many of the cryptographic algorithms, or mechanisms proposed in PKCS#11 are now considered broken.
There are a lot more mechanisms in PKCS#11 than in the W3C Crypto API, so we’ll treat one section of the standard at a time, starting with RSA mechanisms. Below is the summary table
|Algorithm/mode||Ok legacy||Ok future||Note|
|RSASSA-PKCS1-v1_5||✓||×||No security proof|
|ISO/IEC 9796 DS1||×||×||Completely broken, see below|
|ISO/IEC 9796 DS2||✓||✓||Like RSA-PSS|
|ISO/IEC 9796 DS3||✓||×||See below|
|X.509 (Raw) RSA||×||×||See text|
|ANSI X9.31 RSA||✓||×||Almost identical to RSA PKCS#1v1.5|
CKM_RSA_PKCS, when used with
C_Encrypt, this encryption scheme has been known to be vulnerable to a chosen ciphertext attack (CCA) since 1998. For all the details, see this post, and for references to the cryptanalysis literature see here.
CKM_RSA_PKCS_OAEP, used with
C_Encrypt this scheme has a security proof of preservation of indistinguishability under chosen ciphertext attacks (IND-CCA, the standard desirable notion of security for an encryption scheme) – for references go here.
When used with
CKM_RSA_PKCS mechanism gives a scheme which has no publicly known attacks. However, there are also no security proofs and no advantages compared to other RSA-based schemes such as PSS (below).
An RSA Laboratories memo by Burt Kaliski, dated February 26 2003 states “’While the traditional and widely deployed PKCS #1 v1.5 signature scheme is still appropriate to use, RSA Laboratories encourages a gradual transition to RSA-PSS as new applications are developed.”
CKM_RSA_PKCS_PSS has a security proof due to Bellare and Rogaway in the random oracle model.
CKM_RSA_X_509 mechanism just left-pads the input with zeros and then encrypts (or signs) it. There are various reasons why this is a very bad idea. Taking the case of encryption, one is that identical plaintexts encrypt to the same value. Another is that you might be open to a Chinese remainder theorem attack. Certainly you won’t have any security proofs.
Presumably this method was included in PKCS#11 to permit custom padding schemes to be used. To put it mildly, rolling your own padding scheme is highly unlikely to result in a secure scheme.
A signature scheme implemented by mechanism
CKM_RSA_9796. The latest (3rd, 2010) version of ISO 9796-2 contains three digital signature schemes. The first one (DS1) was shown to be insecure by Coron et al at CRYPTO 2009. The second (DS2) closely resembles RSA-PSS and the third (DS3) vaguely resembles RSA-FDH. The 2013 ENISA report advises against the use of all but the second variant. The PKCS#11 implementation just pads whatever input it is given front and rear by the ISO-9796 padding blocks, so potentially one could use any of the encoding schemes.
What about hash functions
Nowadays to sign a message one first creates a digest. This is generally done with a hash function.
PKCS#11 also contains signature mechanisms that calculate the digest, i.e. that take the whole message as input, calculate the digest using a particular inbuilt hash function, and then give the signature. For secure digital signatures the hash function has to be collision-free, otherwise attacks are possible. Collision based attacks have been seen “in the wild” in the Flame malware, which exploited a weakness in MD5. We’ll cover the state of the art in cryptanalysis of the hash functions available in PKCS#11 in a future post.
Cryptosense offers a free whitepaper on PKCS#11 security. To get it, just sign up here